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ESS 5. Lec 01. The Atmosphere: Composition and Evolution of the Atmosphere

Bad Hersfeld, Deutschland. Versand nach:. Zwischen Fr, Kreditkarte, Auf Rechnung. Mehr zum Thema Zustand. Beschreibung This companion provides a collection of frequently needed numerical data as a convenient desk-top or pocket reference for atmospheric scientists as well as a concise source of information for others interested in this matter. The material contained in this book was extracted from the recent and the past scientific literature; it covers essentially all aspects of atmospheric chemistry.

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The data are presented primarily in the form of annotated tables while any explanatory text is kept to a minimum. In this condensed form of presentation, the volume may serve also as a supplement to many textbooks used in teaching the subject at various universities. Portrait Peter Warneck, a physical chemist specializing in atmospheric chemistry, received the diploma in and the doctorate in at the university in Bonn, Germany. In , following several postdoctoral assignments, he joined the GCA Corporation in Bedford, Massachusetts, where he explored elementary processes in the atmospheres of the earth and other planets.

In he also became professor of physical chemistry at the university in Mainz.

The Atmospheric Chemist’s Companion |

In , following German reunification, Warneck was appointed the founding director of the new Institute for Tropospheric Research in Leipzig. He served in this position parallel to his activities in Mainz until official retirement. Warneck s research included laboratory studies of chemical mechanisms and photochemistry as well as the development of analytical techniques for field measurements. Since , his interests are focused on chemical reactions in clouds.

He has participated in many international field measurement campaigns on aircraft, ships and at ground stations.

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Dr Williams is currently an editor on three atmospheric chemistry journals. His present research involves investigating the chemistry of reactive organic species in the atmosphere, in particular over forested ecosystems and in the marine boundary layer. Dr Williams leads a research group focussed specifically on Volatile Organic Compounds VOC at the Max Planck Institute and in he was made an honorary Reader at the University of Rezensionen und Kritiken From the reviews: "The authors did an excellent job in achieving their aim of assembling, in one handy volume, frequently needed fundamental data and observational data on the structure and the chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere.

Warneck and Williams have compiled a comprehensive reference book for both experienced researchers and beginning graduate students in atmospheric science. This book is a welcome addition to atmospheric scientists' bookshelves. Atmospheric pressure and density decrease quasi-exponentially with increasing altitude in accordance with the barometric law. Figure 3. Trace gases include all those gaseous components in the atmosphere that — by virtue of their low concentrations — do not affect the bulk composition of air. This makes it convenient to quantify the local abundance of a trace gas by its molar mixing ratio the chemical amount fraction.

If reference is made to dry air, the influence of the variability of water vapor on the bulk composition of air is eliminated, and the molar mixing ratio becomes independent of changes in pressure and temperature. On the other hand, the presence of radicals, such as the ubiquitous hydroxyl radical OH , are customarily reported in terms of number concentration, although radicals undoubtedly also represent trace gases.

The term aerosol refers to a suspension of fine particles in air. The principal sources of the aerosol in the troposphere are: a surface agitation by wind force, which generates soil dust, sea salt particles, and biogenic material; b high temperature processes including volcanic eruptions, forest fires and anthropogenic combustion processes; c chemical reactions leading to compounds with low vapor pressures such as the oxidation of SO 2 to sulfuric acid, NO 2 to nitric acid, or glyoxal to oxalic acid, and the neutralization of the acids by ammonia or alkaline minerals to form water-soluble salts.

While most clouds evaporate again so that the aerosol particles are recycled, precipitation transfers the material to the earth surface. The particles are incorporated in rain water during the formation of precipitating clouds nucleation scavenging and by attachment to rain drops below-cloud scavenging. Directly emitted particles usually retain their original chemical character in the vicinity of sources, but during transport in the troposphere all particles undergo chemical modification both by the coagulation of small particles and by the accumulation of material resulting from chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and in clouds.


In the stratosphere the principal source of aerosol particles is the chemical conversion of sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid. Chemical reactions in the atmosphere result largely from the absorption of solar radiation in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions provided the incoming photons light quanta carry sufficient energy for chemical processes to be initiated.

Photochemical reactions always occur in two steps: the first is the excitation of a molecule by the absorption of radiation; the second is a reaction of the excited molecule. In atmospheric chemistry, the most important process to be considered is dissociation of the excited molecule. Other modes of energy dissipation, such as fluorescence or collisional energy transfer, usually do not lead to chemical changes so that they are of lesser interest. Any quantitative assessment of the photochemical activity of an atmospheric constituent requires knowledge of a the photon flux of solar radiation, b the absorption cross section of the species under consideration, and c the primary quantum yield of the photo-dissociation process.

The description of atmospheric gas-phase chemistry generally requires a consideration of large sets of elementary chemical reactions.

The reactions are elementary in the sense that they cannot or need not be further broken up into sub-processes. Elementary reactions are classified according to the number of atoms or molecules participating in reactive molecular encounters: as bimolecular, when new products arise from the collision of two reactants, and as termolecular when the reaction requires three reactants.

In particular, the association of two reactants requires a third collision partner to remove excess energy in order to stabilize the newly formed molecule. In the atmosphere the third partner is primarily nitrogen or oxygen. Conditions in the outermost region of the atmosphere differ radically from those in the lower atmosphere. The principal characteristic features are the following:.

Gas chromatography : This is a widely used technique for the separation and analysis of different species present in a gas sample, based on the principle of selective adsorption. An inert carrier gas, taken from a storage tank, flows through a a valve or port for the injection of an aliquot of the sample; b a column packed or coated with a suitable sorbent, with which the individual compounds present in the sample interact more or less strongly so that they are separated owing to different retention times; c a detector producing an electric signal when a compound elutes from the column and passes through the detector.

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