- Will cancer cells be defeated by sodium bicarbonate?
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Will cancer cells be defeated by sodium bicarbonate?
In one trial, response to lonidamine was observed in five patients, but treatment was discontinued in seven patients due to toxicity Band et al. Lonidamine was later tested in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, but it is not currently under any active clinical development due to the lack of significant benefit. It should be noted that lactic acidosis does occur in cancer patients, and in patients with severe conditions, an intervention is required. In fact, sodium bicarbonate infusion is the primary medical measure for correcting the acidity of lactic acidosis.
In addition, for patients who have lactic acidosis and fail on sodium bicarbonate, Dichloroacetic acid DCA, an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2, PDK2 is used. However, none of these agents are considered as a cure for cancers. A radiolabelled therapeutic antibody against CD metuximab has been tested in clinical trials in China. While the development of therapeutics targeting specific glycolysis is challenging and has not yielded any approved therapy, there are some dietary theories for manipulating glucose metabolism.
In medicine, KD is used primarily to treat refractory epilepsy in children. Homeopathic believers have adopted KD for cancer management. According to the published results for clinical trials that involve KD, there is no conclusive evidence to support this as a real therapy for cancer yet, although it may be helpful in certain types of cancers, e. In fact, it has only recently been found that immune cells are also dependent on glycolysis to perform immune surveillance for cancer cells, and anything that restricts glycolysis may also impede immune actions against tumors.
It is also reported that one function of current immune checkpoint inhibitors is to rescue immune cells from repressed glycolysis Qorraj et al. Clearly, much more effort is needed to develop a smart strategy to target glycolysis for cancer treatments. However, it has been reported that short time fasting before chemotherapy can protect leukocytes from therapy- induced DNA damage and may reduce side effects of chemotherapy Dorff et al.
It is hoped that more simple supplemental treatments or dietary practices can be developed to facilitate cancer therapies before a real and potent therapeutic glycolysis inhibitor is clinically available. Cameron Jeffers kindly read the manuscript and provided discussions and suggestions. Compliance and ethics The author s declare that they have no conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Sci China Life Sci. Author manuscript; available in PMC May Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Sci China Life Sci.
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Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Footnotes Compliance and ethics The author s declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Cancer Treat Rep. A nonrandomized cohort and a randomized study of local control of large hepatocarcinoma by targeting intratumoral lactic acidosis. The carcinogenicity of dichloroacetic acid in the male B6C3F1 mouse.mail.maier.de/libraries/charleston/milwaukee-auto-show-ticket-deals.php
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Fundam Appl Toxicol. Safety and feasibility of fasting in combination with platinum- based chemotherapy. After applying the 3 definitions of AKI mentioned above, we did not find any benefit in SB administration, but rather a trend of increased likelihood to develop AKI Table 3. The prospective observational study differs from other studies mentioned in targeting all patients presenting for cardiac surgery without preference for patients at risk to develop kidney injury post-operatively Heringlake et al. A clear limitation of our study is the number of patients that we eventually enrolled.
Our initial sample size, based on an incidence of renal failure of With any lack of benefit demonstrated in the interim analysis, we terminated our study early. While even larger studies could not demonstrate a beneficial effect of perioperative treatment with SB, Haase's most recent work observed a trend of increased mortality in patients receiving SB Haase et al.
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Based on our and currently available findings, we cannot recommend the prophylactic use of a perioperative SB, or suggest the intervention to be tested on a larger study population. The most likely explanation for the lack of benefit of a perioperative SB infusion is the multifactorial etiology of CSA-AKI, and a modification of only one contributing factor insufficient to impact the development of renal failure.
In conclusion, patients undergoing cardio-vascular surgery exposed to cardiopulmonary bypass represent the second most common group of patients treated in intensive care unit settings to develop AKI Uchino et al. Based on our previous experience, we tested the hypothesis that the administration of a prophylactic perioperative SB infusion will alter the development of AKI in a high risk population presenting for high risk surgery.
We were unable to demonstrate a beneficial effect applying historic or recently revised definitions of AKI. This study was funded, in part, by a grant for the Southeastern Kidney Council. We are appreciative of the staff of the cardiothoracic units at Ohio State University and Wake Forest University for their support of this trial.
Allgren, R. Anaritide in acute tubular necrosis.
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Auriculin anaritide acute renal failure study group. Andersson, L. Renal function during cardiopulmonary bypass: influence of pump flow and systemic blood pressure. Acute renal failure after coronary surgery—a study of incidence and risk factors in consecutive patients. Arora, P. Ascione, R. Inadequate blood glucose control is associated with in-hospital mortality and morbidity in diabetic and nondiabetic patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
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Circulation , — Atkins, J. Effect of sodium bicarbonate preloading on ischemic renal failure. Nephron 44, 70— Bellomo, R. Organs 31, — Pubmed Abstract Pubmed Full Text. Low-dose dopamine in patients with early renal dysfunction: a placebo-controlled randomised trial. Lancet , — Block, C.
Prevention of acute renal failure in the critically ill. Care Med. Brezis, M. Cellular mechanisms of acute ischemic injury in the kidney. Brown, J. Multivariable prediction of renal insufficiency developing after cardiac surgery. Circulation , I—I Chertow, G. Preoperative renal risk stratification. Circulation 95, — Independent association between acute renal failure and mortality following cardiac surgery. Conger, J. Interventions in clinical acute renal failure: what are the data?
Kidney Dis. Doi, K. Kidney Int. Filsoufi, F. Predictors and early and late outcomes of dialysis-dependent patients in contemporary cardiac surgery. Fisher, C. Sodium bicarbonate plus Fenoldopam reduces acute renal failure associated with cardiac surgery in high risk patients. Sodium bicarbonate infusion during cardiovascular surgery: a dose dependent reduction in renal failure.
Fontaine, D. Oxidative stress produced by circulating microparticles in on-pump but not in off-pump coronary surgery. Acta Cardiol.