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  1. Seven wonders of the world for 12222
  2. Download Seven Wonders Of Exploration Technology 2010
  3. Seven Wonders of Exploration Technology - Alfred B. Bortz - Google Books
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Petra - Jordan. Petra, Jordan meaning "Rock" in Greek is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah Wadi Araba , the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. It is famous for having many stone structures carved into the rock. The long-hidden site was revealed to the Western world by the Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in The city was the principal city of ancient Nabataea and was famous above all for two things: its trade and its hydraulic engineering systems.

Machu Picchu, Cusco Region, Peru. One of the most famous Incan cities in the world, sun alignments are found throughout Machu Picchu. Many features, including the Sacred Plaza, The Temple of Three Windows and The Intihuatana platform, align with the summer solstice azimuth of degrees. Scientists believe these alignments were primary considerations in the construction of the shrines.

Seven wonders of the world for 12222

A shaft of light, shining through an east-facing window, reportedly illuminates The Torreon, or Temple of the Sun, during the summer solstice. The city was built between and AD at an altitude of 8, feet. As well as being a potent symbol of the Roman Catholic Church, the statue has become an icon of Rio and Brazil.

Great Wall of China. The Great Wall started as earth works thrown up for protection by different States. It was during the Ming dynasty that the Wall took on its present form. The brick and granite work was enlarged and sophisticated designs were added. It is also the largest human-made structure ever built in terms of surface area and mass.

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Chichen Itza, Tinum, Yucatan, Mexico. In a spectacular show of shadow and light, a shadow representing the Feathered Serpent god Kukulkan slides down the northern stairway of Chichen Itza during sunset of the equinoxes and then vanishes. The square, stepped pyramid, built by Mayans in about to AD also has axes that orient with the rising point of the sun at the summer solstice and setting point during the winter solstice.

Many think the pyramid also serves as a calendar. Each of the four faces of the pyramid has a stairway with 91 steps. Roman general Aemilius Paullus c. From Olympia, our intrepid traveler would have caught a merchant ship from the isthmus of Corinth, sailing eastward some miles across the pellucid waters of the Aegean. Arriving a few days later at their destination, the bustling island of Rhodes, the travelers would have been greeted with a breathtaking sight.

It was long believed that the statue straddled the harbor entrance, but modern archaeologists say this would not have been possible with the bronze-casting techniques available to the sculptor, Chares of Lindos, when he erected it between and B. Yet, for all its majesty, the Colossus turned out to be the most fragile Wonder of them all—standing for only 56 years before collapsing in an earthquake in B. The colossus would have made an appropriate introduction to the opulence of Asia Minor modern Turkey , where the Temple of Artemis mixed Oriental splendor and Hellenic artistry.

Size mattered in the ancient world, and in the ostentatious port of Ephesus, citizens built their greatest temple to tower above the city skyline. Though the Parthenon of Athens was regarded as the most perfectly proportioned of all buildings, the Temple of Artemis overwhelmed it in scale. One hundred twenty-seven columns, painted in gaudy colors, supported its huge ceiling; some visitors felt lost in the dizzying forest of pillars, as imposing as sequoia trunks. Swathed in clouds of incense, a statue of the mother goddess beckoned with open arms.

This was not the svelte, athletic huntress Artemis of Greek lore but a majestic, maternal creation from the East, whose multiple breasts hung like papayas from her torso.

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No less splendor graced the Mausoleum, rising feet into the air like a gigantic wedding cake above the turquoise harbor of Halicarnassus, now the modern port of Bodrum on the so-called Turkish Riviera, about 60 miles from the Colossus. Built, legend has it, around B. At its pinnacle, a giant burning brazier topped by a statue of Zeus provided a suitably theatrical arrival to the city where Europe, Africa and Asia met. It was these learned men who had produced the lighthouse.

For thousands of years, the Great Pyramid of Giza was the tallest and most precise stone building in the world. The pyramids were especially dazzling in the Greek era when they were still sheathed in white limestone and covered by hieroglyphics and graffiti, glistening brilliantly in the desert sun. Surrounding the pyramids, the remains of ancient temples dating back to the Old Kingdom—the apogee of Egyptian military power and artistic skill circa B.

Babylon, lying some 45 miles south of modern Baghdad, was once widely regarded as the most intoxicating urban center in the world.

Seven Wonders of Exploration Technology - Alfred B. Bortz - Google Books

Travelers entered the city through the Ishtar Gates, inlaid with blue glazed bricks bearing images of lions, bulls and dragons, only to behold a forest of towering ziggurats, obelisks and smoking altars by the Euphrates River. The Hanging Gardens—a rooftop paradise of sculpted terraces, shade, and perfumed flowers—rose majestically above the human sprawl, watered by a hydraulic irrigation system. But much about the gardens is unknown, including their exact location.

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Billows, professor of history at ColumbiaUniversity. Though only one of the Seven Wonders survives, it and the sites of the six others still launch a thousand package tours each year. Two of them exist only as fragments on display in museums; others have been scorched entirely from the earth.

2. Climbing El Capitan, Yosemite

And yet, they remain curiously compelling. All that is left of the Temple of Zeus is its foundation, but the spot where the statue stood has been identified. In , archaeologists found, some 50 yards from the temple ruins, the workshop in which the artist Phidias sculpted the statue in the fifth century B.

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In Rhodes, hordes of tourists cluster each summer at Mandraki Harbor, where the Colossus is thought to have stood. Around A. In , the citizens of Rhodes announced a memorial to be built on the site, though work has yet to begin. As for the two Wonders of Asia Minor—the Temple of Artemis and the Mausoleum—they were devastated by earthquakes, barbarians and vengeful Christians.


Scraps of both lie in the British Museum in London, but their sites are hauntingly bare. Peter at Bodrum, which was restored in the s as a museum dedicated to underwater archaeology. Within a year, French marine archaeologists had catalogued just under 3, chunks of masonry, some of which is thought to be the lighthouse, scattered about the ocean floor. Soon they were raising the magnificent statues that once stood by its side.

The sculptures are believed to have fallen there during earthquakes that struck the region from late antiquity to the 14th century A. Using computer graphics, CEA archaeologists are now piecing together how the edifice would have looked and functioned. For its part, the Egyptian government has floated plans for an underwater marine park, which tourists would visit in glass-bottomed boats.

As a self-styled new Nebuchadnezzar, Hussein built a luxurious palace on a hill above the excavations of the original royal palace, then ordered the ancient edifice rebuilt using bricks stamped with his name. Ironically, new research carried out by Stephanie Dalley and others of the Oriental Institute at Oxford University suggests the gardens may not have been in Babylon at all, but in Nineveh, the ancient capital of Assyria in what is now northern Iraq. Nor are they thought to have been built by Nebuchadnezzar, but an Assyrian king, Sennacherib. Misguided though it was, the work in Babylon shows the power of the past to shape the present.

But if their most obvious lesson is that our finest creations will one day turn to rubble, it is a lesson that we resolutely refuse to learn. Continue or Give a Gift.

ISBN 13: 9780761354536

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